The ivy on our wall has been looking fabulous again this year and providing the bees and wasps, as well as the odd butterfly (Red Admirals mainly), although there were many more butterflies last year, with much needed last minute nectar!
It is a species of flowering plant in the family Araliaceae, which is family number 136 in Stace. Hedera is the generic term for ivy and got several species growing in the B.I. which are all garden escapes. Only H. helix is the native or Common Ivy. The specific epithet helix derives from Ancient Greek meaning “twist, turn’.
I have been visiting this lovely concept garden, or park, in the Netherlands whilst here on a family visit. As I’ve already written in my Ethhnoblog Introduction of April, 18th this year about what I believe is a typical Dutch type of garden.
Apparently there are about 130 of these gardens in the Netherlands and 7 in Belgium; some are listed on the Dutch Webpage here
I will translate some of the information below as the translation is not accurate, but rather about Wildlife Gardens.
This week I’d like to talk about the Common Poppy or Papaver rhoeas, which is a symbol in Britain for the millions of casualties in the First World War and since.
It belongs to the Papaveraceae or Poppy family which is number 30 in Stace.
This weekend we will have Remembrance Sunday here which is always the nearest Sunday to Armistice * Day (on 11-11). This was signed at 5 am on the 11th November, 1918 to be precise but all the fighting ceased at 11 am, so exactly 100 years ago!
*Armistice means: a Ceasefire or suspension of hostilities or also an agreement made by opposing sites to stop fighting for a certain time or a truce.
Papaver, also ‘pappa’, is the Latin word for food or milk and ‘rhoeas’ means red in Greek.
This week we continue with the last genera of the Lamiaceae:
SUBFAMILY 4: NEPETOIDEAE (genus 23-27)
23) Lycopus europaeus or Gypsywort, 24) Mentha or Mints. This is a difficult taxa for classification due to widespread hybridisation (p. 629). But according to Stace; ‘with practice the scent of fresh plants is very helpful, but difficult to describe!’ Many are native but many will be introduced as escaped garden plants of course. 27) From this large genus, Salvia or Sage, only 2 are native: S. pratensis or Meadow Clary and S. verbenaca or Wild Clary.
12) Teucrium or Germanders with 4 species, 13) Ajuga or Bugles with 3 species.
SUBFAMILY 4: NEPETOIDEAE (14-27) (Some genera are missing as these are non natives)
14) Nepeta cataria or Catmint (arch.), 15) Glechoma hederacea or Ground-ivy, 16) Prunella or Selfheals with 1 possibly 2 native., 19) Clinopodium or Calamints, 21) Origanum vulgare or Wild Marjoram, 22) Thymus or Thymes, 23) Lycopus europaeus or Gypsywort, 24) Mentha or Mints. This is a difficult taxa for classification due to widespread hybridisation (p. 629). But according to Stace; ‘with practice the scent of fresh plants is very helpful, but difficult to describe!’ Many are native but many will be introduced as escaped garden plants of course. 27) From this large genus, Salvia or Sage, only 2 are native: S. pratensis or Meadow Clary and S. verbenaca or Wild Clary.
This family of the Lamiacea or the Dead-nettle family (family 118, p. 611 in St.) is one of my favourites for the flowers and herbs it gives us. The insects and in particular the bees also love it for the nectar the flower provides.
It is a large family in the B.I. with 27 genera. To identify to genus level, Stace has split them into 8 groups. Not all genera are native but may be garden escapes. As it too large for one week I will spread this family into 3 separate blogs and weeks.
To make life even easier for identifying the plants the taxonomists also have sub divided this large family world-wide into 4 Subfamilies, where again the genera in those groups have similar characters. This is the whole idea about classification to make sense to all that variety out there!
To summarize, I will place only the native as well as Archyophytes into those, so numbers missing below are not native:
The Willow family (number 62 in Stace) has two of our main tree genera, namely the Poplar and the Willow. Although the flowers (as always in traditional classification) determine the ultimate genus and whether it is a Willow or Poplar, most of us can easily tell the difference from the leaves. All the Poplars have a triangular outline and a long leaf stem (petiole) whilst most of the Willows have long, narrow leaves.
When there are no leaves in winter the tree could be identified by the winter buds, where Willows just have one outer scale and the Poplar has several. However as there is much to say about the Willow, I will leave the Poplar for another blog in the future.
This is family number 50 in Stace and besides the genus Urtica, which has 2 native species, it also has 2 other genera + species occurring in the B.I. namely Parietaria judaica(Pellitory-of-the-wall) and an ornamental, low creeping with very small leaves, sometimes seen as a houseplant, called Soleirolia soleiroliiwith the very funny common name: ‘Mind-your-own-business’. I have seen this plant more frequently in the last few years in gardens as well.
“ The 3 genera appear very different vegetatively, but are characterised by their inconspicuous, unisexual flowers with 4 perianth segments, 4 stamens, 1-celled superior ovary with 1 ovule, 1 style and densely branched stigma”. The Common Nettle (Urtica dioica) is very variable, especially in leaf shape and hairiness, stingless, subglabrus and monoecious variants are known.” From Stace, p. 285
The other native nettle is not as well-known and is the annual Small Nettle (Urtica urens). Apparently (St. 286) this is an archaeophyte and often occurs in cultivated and waste ground. As with many leafy plants, they are often an indicator of good soil.
I would like to talk about a very attractive plant today called the Common Toadflax or Linaria vulgaris. At the moment (end of August) it is flowering in profusion all along the motorways and other big roads. It used to be in the Scrophulariaceae family but this family has been split into five families. More about this later.
In the Netherlands we call this ‘Lion’s Mouth’, which I think is a nicer name for this pretty yellow wild flower! However when I looked in Mrs Grieve’s book, ‘A Modern Herbal’ (page 815) I noticed it is also one of the many other names for Toadflax.
I found the following 16 names: Fluellin, Pattens and Clogs, Flaxweed, Ramated, Snapdragon, Churnstuff, Dragon-bushes, Brideweed, Toad, Yellow Rod, Larkspur Lion’s Mouth, Devils’ Doggies, Calves’ Snout, Eggs and Bacon, Buttered Haycocks and last but not least, Monkey Flower. The name Toadflax originated in the resemblance of the flower to little toads, there being also a resemblance between the mouth of the flower and the wide mouth of the toad. The general resemblance of the plant in early summer to a flax plant, accounts for the latter part of its name.
Today I would like to introduce you to a document received from fellow botanist Mike Poulton, who used to do training sessions on foraging for wild plants. The edible parts of the native plants are listed with their common names and categorized in 5 sections: leaves and shoots, herbs, edible flowers, fruits and seeds and roots.