The family of Poaceae (number 170, or the last family in Stace’s and most other modern Floras) has 5 Sub-families and 16 tribes. It is by far the largest family in the temperate world as grasses flourish in nearly every habitat!
Although Stace does mention many obvious non-natives which have naturalized in several places as well as crop plants which have been grown for many centuries.
Many people find grasses hard to identify and this is mostly due because of their small parts, which often need be looked at through magnifying glasses and of course they are mainly all green.
However with a bit of practise and knowledge into which diagnostics to look for, they are not too difficult.
Family 81 Brassicaceae has approx 52 native genera according to Stace
This family has a good representation on the British Isles mainly with annuals and perennials. It is easy to recognise as the apt former family name was Cruciferae which means the flowers always have 4 petals and 4 sepals forming a cross or crucifix. If not in flower the fruits are also a distinctive feature useful for identification. Many have both the flowers as well as the fruit at the same time, making identification even easier!
Several improved members of this family have been in cultivation for hundreds of years for their food value especially in winter-time such as all the different cabbages and kales, but throughout the year there are vegetables of this family from salad leaves such as Rocket, Mustard, Cress and their peppery tasting roots such as in the Turnip and Radish!
The Elder is a member of the Caprifoliaceae or the Honeysuckle family (number 131 in Stace) and has 7 genera which are all woody shrubs, small trees or climbers.
Sambucus nigra can be a large, deciduous Shrub growing rapidly to 6 m (19ft) by 6 m (19ft) and often even taller in a sheltered or shady position. It can be grown anywhere but will flower and fruit best in sun; in shade, flowering will be limited. Naturally it spreads rapidly and in awkward places when the juicy fruits are eaten by birds.
The common Elder is an attractive shrub in all seasons for the wildlife garden and in farm hedges. The inflorescence is a broad, flat umbel-like corymb up to 25 cms. (10”) across. The creamy, white flowers, usually from June onwards, are sweetly fragrant, hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and followed by round to ovoid, purplish black, fruit after pollination by flies.
To start off, a plant who most of us know very well: The Dandelion.
This is in the family of Asteraceae which is number 128 in Stace’s Flora of the B.I. This large family has no less than 104 genera described, sub-divided in 3 sub-families and 16 tribes. The dandelion is in Sub-family 2 or Cichorioideae, tribe 2 or Cichorieae and Genus number 33 just to dazzle you with the scientific classification! All interesting stuff though hope you agree?
Many more plants of this family will be written about in future blogs!
The true Dandelion or Taraxacum officinale no longer exists. The dandelion is so varied now that “234 microspecies are currently recognised in the British Isles” (from Stace p. 712).
The name Dandelion comes from the French ‘dent-de-lion’ or ‘tooth of lion’.
Most of us love and/or hate the dandelion. Their en mass-flowering period is relatively short although it will carry on sending new flowers throughout the year.
Dandelions in various stages of its life-cycle
They are very successful and can grow virtually everywhere, but the best grow in good fertile soil where they become prolific and tend to be the most difficult to get out again!
This website mentions over 20 most troublesome weeds, upon which I will hope to do a write up in the coming weeks. As my partner is going through 1000’s of pictures taken by him in the last 10 years, I will occasionally stray to another weed/native plant which I think is worth you knowing about!