Rosebay willowherb and other natives of the Willowherb or Onagraceae family

There are 7 genera in this family growing in the British Isles. However, four of those are introduced ones, namely the Fuchsia, which grows mainly as a hedging plant in most of the South and West. These are often forms of  Fuchsia magellanica, which is native to Chile and Argentina you’ll notice along the coast which climate suits this plant best.

This and many other Fuchsias can have delicious edible fruits! Apparently you can eat the flowers too, but this seems a shame!

Then there are the annual Clarkia, which are garden escapes and the annual to biennial (rarely perennial) called Oenothera or the Evening-primroses which come from the Americas or Europe. Please check out all the edible and medical uses on the PFAF website!

Another interesting post on various ornamental Oenothera species can be found here.

Ludwigia has only 1 native species: L. palustris or Hampshire-purslane which is native and extremely local in New Forest and Dorset only. The other 2 species are aquatic plants and introduced by aquarists’ throwouts in ponds.

Botanical illustration of Circaea lutetiana (see in Wikipedia)

Circaea lutetiana or Enchanter’s-nightshade

is an interesting and pretty plant and not just for its name and tiny moth-like flowers.

It is not often a troublesome weed but it is only rarely used as a garden plant. When it is, it is typically of a variety known as ‘Caveat Emptor’, which has leaves that are heavily mottled pink. Couldn’t find a picture of this though!

Found an entertaining post here written by the Biking gardener

Medicinal Use:

The plant has been used as a treatment on wounds. A compound infusion has been drunk and also used as a wash on injured parts of the body. It has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea, or externally as cold maceration in ethanol, for treatment of rheumatism, gout, infections, and fever.

There are 2 other native species:

C. alpina or Alpine Enchanter’s-nightshade and C. x intermedia or Upland Enchanter’s-nightshade.

Epilobium spp. (Willowherbs)

The Epilobium, which is the largest genus has 2 keys in Stace in order to work out which of the 14 species it is or which of the 46 hybrids!

Epilobium hirsutum with a background of Deschampsia caespitosa or Wavy Hairgrass

The best known is probably the Great Willowherb or E. hirsutum which is native in all sorts of wet or damp places. It is the the tallest species and up to 1.8 metre. It is very common where I grew up in the Waterland area near Amsterdam, providing a very beautiful colour amongst the vast reed beds there.

Chamaenerion angustifolium or Rosebay Willowherb

Here in the British Isles I’ve noticed the Rosebay Willowherb or Chamaenerion angustifolium much more frequently. There is a beautiful white form of this grown in gardens. It is a bit less invasive as the normal purple one!

White flowering Willowherb in ‘Yew Tree Cottage Garden’, Staffordshire (by Ruth Plant)

After seeing it en-mass again last weekend in our local Walsall Arboretum Extension Park, I tend to agree with the following account and uses below from Hedgerow Medicine:

‘This beautiful native plant is stunning enough to be grown in any garden and yet is considered a weed. It has not been used much in medicine in recent years but was a favourite of the American Eclectic physicians in:

  • treating diarrhoea and typhoid.
  • Its soothing, astringent and tonic action is wonderful for all sorts of intestinal irritation, and
  • it makes a good mouthwash.

In North America it is called Fireweed because of its tendency to spring up as an early pioneer on burnt land..

  • The North Americans have used rosebay as a food plant, but ‘wild food’ expert Roger Phillips is not a fan as he finds it far too bitter to enjoy as any kind of vegetable.’
  • A tea is made from the fermented leaves as my friend Sally pointed out. I still have to taste it but apparently it is really similar to ‘normal’ black tea. Here you can find a good post all about it and below a short extract to wet the appetite!

‘Ivan tea, or Koporsky tea is made from the leaves of Rosebay willowherb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) and was first mentioned in the 12th century and was popular right up until the 18th century. In fact, it was Russia’s second largest export to Europe, making it just as popular as Indian tea. ‘

There are about 7 other species of Epilobium described in The Wild Flower Key which grow in the British Isles. The most common are Broad-leaved Willowherb (Epilobium montanum) and American Willowherb (E. ciliatum) which has been introduced since 1891 from N. America and is often the commonest Epilobium spp. in much of South England. These two can be a problem in gardens as they sow out prolifically although in a well stocked garden, they won’t be noticed! They are even rather attractive again in a big group too!

There is some useful Medicinal Uses found in my Hedgerow Medicine book:

  • The small-flowered willowherbs are a specific remedy for prostate problems, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BHP). Plants in this informal group help shrink the tissues, arrest cell proliferation and normalise urinary function.
  • Small-flowered willowherbs are also effective for a wide range of bladder and urinary problems, for women as well as men. with the astringent and diuretic action serving to tone and detoxify the urinary tract.
  •  Epilobium montanum herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea for treatment of disorders of the prostate, kidneys, and urinary tract.

These species all have small, pale pink flowers and a lot different than the other willowherbs. If you click their common names link above it will bring you to the wildflower finder with many very nice pictures to see their differences. Their scientific name link brings you to Wikipedia for more description.

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