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In my blogs, you may have noticed that I write about native plants and mostly refer to their latin names as well as the family in which they fit. The reason is that I do not wish to make it just another piece concerning the uses of native plants, but one where I would like to place them into a Binomial nomenclature, a system which is essential for the idea of order in my ‘virtual ethnobotanical garden’!
For the summary, below, of the Scientific Classification of the Vascular Plants in the British Isles, I have gone through the 1232 pages of the ‘New Flora of the British Isles’ Third Edition by Clive Stace. There is now a Fourth Edition of this.
The Flora lists “all native, naturalised and crop plants and all casual plants recorded five or more times since 1930. In the Flora 4800 taxa are now covered in varying degrees of detail. It is the first British Flora to incorporate the new molecular system of classification based on DNA sequences, a scheme that is expected to endure for centuries to come.”
A bit more about general classification can be found here:
For the purpose of this blog I will mainly list the true natives, archaeophytes, neophytes or other well known ornamental/crop plants. Many of those above plants are well spread into the wild, either having been introduced as an ornamental and escaped or unintentionally through, for example, bird seed (called bird seed aliens), or by the woollen industry (called woollen aliens).
They can also, even some true natives, grow only very localised; in just a small habitat.
Below you can find a summary of all the 170 plant families found in Stace with the most important genus, genera or and species added. Often I will only mention the genus and/or spp (see below for abbreviations used) if there are more than one variety of that plant.
Archaeophytes: in Stace’s glossary it says: An archaeophyte is a plant that is mostly associated with man’s activities (e.g. a weed of cultivated ground) and has existed in BI since at least Medieval times; uncertain whether native or introduced.
intrd-natd:- introduced and naturalized.
Stace or St.:- meaning from the ‘New Flora of the British Isles’-Third and Fourth Edition by Clive Stace
Spp or sp: The abbreviation “sp.” is used when the actual specific name cannot or need not be specified. The abbreviation “spp.” (plural) indicates several species“. For example Canis sp. means “an unspecified species of the genus Canis”, while “Canis spp.” means “two or more species of the genus Canis”. See also more about classification here:
ssp: subspecies is a taxonomic category that ranks below species, usually a fairly permanent geographically isolated race. Subspecies are designated by a Latin trinomial, e.g. Beta vulgaris crassa.
agg: (in this context as has many meanings) aggregate or a mass or body of units or parts somewhat loosely associated with one another.
Stace’s Flora then, starts off with the most primitive of plants called the
1 LYCOPODIACEAE – Clubmoss family
2 SELAGINELLACEAE – Lesser clubmoss family
3 ISOETACEAE – Quillwort family
Then the EUSPORANGIATE FERNS
4 OPHIOGLOSSACEAE – Adder’s-tongue family
5 EQUISETACEAE – Horsetail family .
Finally the TRUE FERNS or LEPTOSPORANGIATE FERNS
6 OSMUNDACEAE –Royal Fern family
7 HYMENOPHYLLACEAE – Filmy-fern family
8 MARSILEACEAE – Pillwort family
9 SALVINIACEAE – Water fern family
11 DENNSTAEDTIACEAE – Bracken family
12 PTERIDACEAE – Ribbon Fern family
13 ASPLENIACEAE –Spleenwort family
14 THELYPTERIDACEAE – Marsh Fern family
15 WOODSIACEAE – Lady-fern family
16 BLECHNACEAE – Hard-fern family
18 DRYOPTERIDACEAE – Buckler-fern family
19 POLYPODIACEAE – Polypody family
Then the Conifers or GYMNOSPERMS (number 20-23 in Stace)
20 PINACEAE – Pine family only 1 species true native (Pinus sylvestris but many are introduced and grown for various uses
21 ARAUCARIACEAE – The Monkey Puzzle, introduced as an ornamental from Chile and W. Argentina
22 TAXACEAE – Yew family or Taxus baccata
23 CUPRESSACEAE – Juniper family most conifers of this family are introduced and grown as ornamental. Only true native is Juniperus communis and the subspecies are also quite localised only.
Then finally the primitive Angiosperms: (number families 24-28 in Stace)
25 NYMPHAECEAE – Water Lily family with native White Water Llily (Nymphaea alba) and the Yellow Water Lily (Nuphar lutea as well as N. pumila or Least Water Llily)
27 ARISTOLOCHIACEAE – Birthwort family with introduced and naturalized genera Asarum and Aristolochia.
28 LAURACEAE – Bay family with introduced as ornamental or for culinary purposes the Laurus nobilis or Bay.
The true Dicotyledons EU-DICOTS (families 29- 138)
29 CERATOPHYLLACEAE – Hornwort family which are all aquatic plants
30 PAPAVERACEAE – Poppy family with genera Papaver (Poppies), Meconopsis (Welsh Poppy), Glaucium (Horned Poppies), Chelidonium (Greater Celandine), Pseudofumaria lutea (syn. Corydalis lutea or Yellow Corydalis), Fumaria or Fumitory.
31 BERBERIDACEAE – Barberry family: Berberis vulgaris is the only native, archaeophyte plant, many other Barberries are introduced as ornamental and can spread by seed mostly eaten and distributed by birds.
32 RANUNCULACEAE – Buttercup family
Caltha (C. palustris or Marsh Marigold); Trollius europaeus or Globeflower): Helleborus or the Hellebores: H. foetidus maybe native as well as H. viridis ssp. occidentalis, Anemone nemerosa (and var. caerulea) or Wood Anemone, Pulsatilla vulgaris or Pasqueflower, Clematis vitalba or Traveler’s Joy / ‘Old man’s Beard’, Ranunculus or Buttercups: R. acris and ssp. (Meadow Buttercup), R. repens (Creeping Buttercup), R. bulbosus (Bulbous Buttercup) + several other small flowered species as well as aquatic species. Ficaria verna (syn. R. ficaria) or Lesser Celandine has several ssp. as well as ornamental varieties. Aquilegia vulgaris or Columbine; native populations are usually all violet blue flowered. Thalictrum or Meadow Rues: 2 native sp. T. flavum and T. minus.
33 PLATANACEAE – Plane family
Introduced tree of parks and urban roads: Platanus x hispanica or London Plane
34 BUXACEAE – Box family: Buxus sempervirens or Box
37 GROSSULARIACEAE – Gooseberry family: Ribes rubrum or Red Currant, R. spicatum or Downy Currant, R. nigrum or Black Currant, R. alpinum or Mountain Currant, R. uva-crispa or Gooseberry. The Black and Gooseberry are likely to be introduced a long time ago but naturalized by self-seeding (birds).
38 SAXIFRAGACEAE – Saxifrage family
Saxifraga sps. Several native as well as introduced and naturalized
Chrysosplenium or Golden saxifrages
39 CRASSULACEAE – Stonecrop family
Umbilicus or U. rupestris (Navelwort), Sedum rosea (syn. Rhodiola rosea), S. acre (Biting Stonecrop), S. album (White Stonecrop – Archaeophyte), S. anglicum (English Stonecrop).
40 HALORAGACEAE – Water Milfoil family
42 FABACEAE– Pea family (Leguminosae, Papilionaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Mimosaceae) split also in to several tribes and sections in Stace. + other botanical works.
This is a large family, with the important ability to be able to fix its own nitrogen.
The most important native genera for us are: Oxytropis, Onobrychis (Sainfoin), Anthyllis (Kidney Vetch), Lotus (Bird’s-foot trefoils), Vicia (V. sativa (Common Vetch), Lathyrus (Peas), Ononis (Restharrows), Melilotus (Melilots), Medicago (Medicks), Trifolium (Clovers), Cytisus (Brooms), Genista (Greenweeds) and Ulex (Gorses).
43 POLYGALACEAE – Milkwort family
Polygala spp. or Milkworts
44 ROSACEAE – Rose family
Large family split in to subfamilies, with several important native genera in
- Subfamily 1: SPIRAEOIDEAE; Dryas (Mountain Avens), Prunus (Cherries), Pyrus (Pears- mostly Archaeophyte), Malus: M. sylvestris (Crab Apple), Sorbus (Whitebeams- Mountain Ashes)) several species which grow in limited areas as native and more widespread are aucuparia (Mountain Ash), S. aria (Common Whitebeam), S. torminalis (Wild Service Tree), Cotoneaster (mostly introduced by bird dropped seeds in gardens), Mespilus (Medlar-Archaeophyte for 4 centuries p. 238 St.), Crataegus (Hawthorns).
Subfamily 2: ROSOIDEAE; Filipendula (Meadowsweet) – F. vulgaris & F. ulmaria, Rubus (Brambles): most important species are: R. fruticosus or ‘Common Blackberry’ – but not really, as split in to many sections and series (St. 241-242). In the Wild Flower Key by F. Rose, p. 256 it says: R. fruticosus is realy an agg of very numerous microspecies, differing in types of stem armament, hair and gland distribution, leaf shape, flower colour, and fruit shape, colour and flavour. Also R. idaeus (Raspberry), R. chamaemorus (Cloudberry), Potentilla (Cinquefoils), Comarum palustre (Potentilla palustre or Marsh Cinquefoil), Fragaria or F. vesca (Wild Strawberry) Barren Strawberry?), Geum (Avens), Agrimonia (Agrimonies), Sanguisorba (Burnets), Alchemilla (Lady’s-mantle), Aphanes (Parsley piert), Rosa (Roses! See 268 St.: ‘An extremely complex genus..’), R. arvensis (Field-rose), R. spinosissima (Burnet Rose), and R. canina (Dog-rose) being the better known ones.
45 ELAEAGNACEAE – Sea buckthorn family
Hippophae rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn)
46 RHAMNACEAE – Buckthorn family
Rhamnus cathartica (Buckthorn) and Frangula alnus (Alder Buckthorn)
47 ULMACEAE – Elm family
Ulmus glabra (Wych Elm), U. x hollandica (Dutch elm), U. procera (English Elm), U. minor and ssp. minor (Small-leaved elm), U. minor ssp. angustifolia (Cornish Elm), U. minor ssp. sarniensis (Jersey Elm), U. plotii (Plot’s Elm) as well as many crosses between species.
48 CANNABACEAE – Hop family: Humulus lupulus (Hop), Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Intrd-casual; formerly grown for fibre and still illicitly on small scale for drug, now again being grown in trials as a fibre or oilseed crop; imported in mixed birdseed and frequent on tips, etc.
50 URTICACEAE – Nettle family
Urtica dioica (Common Nettle), U. urens (Small Nettle), Parietaria judaica (Pellitory-of-the-wall).
52 FAGACEAE – Beech family
Fagus sylvatica (Beech), Quercus petraea (Sessile Oak) & Q. robur (Pedunculate Oak).
53 MYRICACEAE – Bog Myrtle family
Myrica gale (Bog Myrtle)
55 BETULACEAE – Birch family
Betula pendula (Silver Birch), B. pubescens (Downy Birch), B. nana (Dwarf Birch), Alnus glutinosa (Alder), Carpinus betulus (Hornbeam), Corylus avellana (Hazel).
56 CUCURBITACEAE –White Bryony family
Bryonia dioica (White Bryony)
57 CELASTRACEAE – Spindle family
Euonymus europaeus (Spindle)
58 PARNASSIACEAE – Grass-of-Parnassus family
Parnassia palustris (Grass-of-Parnassus)
59 OXALIDACEAE – Wood Sorrel family
Oxalis acetosella (Wood Sorrel)
60 EUPHORBIACEAE – Spurge family
Mercurialis or Mercuries; M.perennis (Dog’s Mercury), Euphorbia or Spurges e.g. E. peplis, E. helioscopia, E. amygdaloides ssp. amygdaloides (Wood Spurge).
62 SALICACEAE –Willow family
Not only genus Salix (Willow) but also Populus (Poplar)
63 VIOLACEAE – Violet family; the more common ones are Viola odorata (Sweet Violet), V. riviniana (Common Dog Violet), andV. tricolor (Wild Pansy)
64 LINACEAE – Flax family: The most common species is introduced: Linum usitatissimum (Flax) but there are several native species found on dry often calcareous soils.
65 HYPERICACEAE – St. John’s Wort family. The most-known and common one is H. perforatum or Perforate St John’s Wort but there are several other native St. John’s Worts in Britain.
66 GERANIACEAE – Cranesbill family has 3 native genera: Geranium (or Cranesbill), Monsonia (Dysentry herbs) and Erodium (Storksbill)
Especially the Geranium has several ornamental natives.
67 LYTHRACEAE – Purple-loosestrife family
Lythrum salicaria is the common but very attractive native Purple loosestrife always found in wet areas.
68 ONAGRACEAE –Willowherb family
There are many species of Epilobium with E. hirsutum (Great Willowherb) being one of the easiest to recognize. The Rosebay Willowherb is another easy one to recognize and is in another genus: Chamerion angustifolium. Other notable genera are: Oenothera (Evening primroses), Ludwigia, Fuchsia, Circaea (Enchanter’s nightshades) and Clarkia (not native).
72 SAPINDACEAE – Maple family. The Acer has only one true native species: Acer campestre or Field Maple. The Sycamore or A. pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides (Norway Maple) are also common but both introduced and naturalised especially the former!)). Aesculus or Horse Chestnut is also a genus of this family and Aesculus hippcastanum has been introduced but is often naturalized. It has been severely attacked by Horse chestnut leaf miner in recent years. Cameraria ohridella is a leaf mining moth that attacks the leaves of horse chestnut.
75 MALVACEAE – Mallow family: The three native genera are Tilia (Lime), Malva (Mallows) and Althaea (Marsh-mallow).
76 THYMELACEAE – Mezereon family: Two native species of Dapne (Mezereons) are: D. mezereon and D. laureola (Spurge laurel).
77 CISTACEAE– Rock rose family: There are several native Helianthemum species (Common Rock rose) and Spotted Rock rose is Tuberaria guttata.
80 RESEDACEAE– Mignonette family: Reseda lutea (Wild Mignonette) and Reseda luteola (Weld) are the best known members.
81 BRASSICACEAE – Cabbage family
Large family with many native genera & species such as:
Arabidopsis (Thale Cresses), Capsella bursa-pastoris or Shepherd’s Purse, Turritis glabra or Tower Mustard, Barbarea vulgaris or Winter-cress, Rorippa (Yellow-cress), Nasturtium (Watercress), Armoracia rusticana or Horseradish; not native but widely naturalized, Cardamine (Bittercress and C. pratensis or Cuckooflower/Ladysmock, Lepidium (Pepperworts), Subularia aquatic or Awlwort, Lunaria (Honesty – not native, but an interesting plant!), Alyssum, Aurinia, Berteroa, Lobularia, Descurainia all non-natives some used in gardens. Hornungia petraea or Hutchinsia, Arabis (Rock cress), Draba (Erophila) (Whitlowgrasses), Brassica oleracea or Cabbage, Sinapis (Mustards), Hirschfeldia incana or Hoary Mustard, not native but increasingly natd., Coincya (C. wrightii or Lundy Cabbage, C. monensis ssp. monensis = Isle of Man Cabbage, C. monensis ssp. cheiranthos = Wallflower Cabbage), Cakile maritima or Sea Rocket, Rapistrum (non-native Cabbages), Crambe maritima or Sea-kale, Raphanus (R. raphanistrum ssp. raphanistrum or Wild Radish = Archaeophyte and ssp. maritimus or Sea Radish), Sisymbrium officinale or Hedge Mustard = Archaeophyte), Isatis tinctoria or Woad = Archaeophyte), Alliaria petiolata or Garlic Mustard, Teesdalia nudicaulis or Sheperd’s Cress, Thlaspi arvense or Field Pennycress = Arch.), Noccaea caerulescens or Alpine Pennycress, Microthlaspi perfoliatum or Perfoliate Pennycress, Hesperis matronalis or Dame’s Violet non-native ornamental) Matthiola (Stocks), Malcolmia maritima or Virginia Stock = not native, Cochlearia (Scurvygrasses), Iberis (Candytufts I. amara or Wild Candytuft is only native plant).
82 SANTALACEAE – Bastard toadflax family
This family has 2 genera of totally different appearance (St. 425)
Thesium (T. humifusum or Bastard toadflax) and Viscum (V. album or Mistletoe)
83 FRANKENIACEAE – Sea-heath family
Frankenia laevis or Sea-heath
85 PLUMBAGINACEAE – Thrift family
With many species of Limonium (L. vulgare or Comon Sea lavender is the most known one) and Armeria (Thrifts).
86 POLYGONACEAE – Knotweed family
Persicaria (Knotweeds: many species and some interesting native ones), Koenigia islandica or Iceland-purslane, Fagopyrum esculentum or Buckwheat = non native, but old cultivated plant), Polygonum (Knotgrasses), Fallopia japonica or Japanese Knotweed being the most known (hated!) one, Rheum rhabarbarum or Rhubarb the edible non native one, Rumex (Docks), Oxyria digyna or Mountain Sorrel).
87 DROSERACEAE – Sundew family
Drosera or Sundews
88 CARYOPHYLLACEAE – Pink family subdivided in three subfamilies
- SUBFAMILY 1 – ALSINOIDES (genera 1 -11)
Arenaria (Sandworts): several native species and 2 intrd-natd, Moehringia trinervia or Three-nerved Sandwort. Honckenya peploides or Sea Sandwort, Minuartia sps. (Sandworts), Stellaria sps. or Stitchworts, Cerastium sps. or Mouse-ear, Myosoton aquaticum or Water Chickweed, Sagina sps. or Pearlworts, Scleranthus sps or Knawels.
- SUBFAMILY 2 – (genera 12 – 17)
Corrigiola litoralis or Strapwort, Herniaria sps. or Ruptureworts, Illecebrum verticillatum or Coral-necklace, Polycarpon tetraphyllum or Four-leaved Allseed, Spergula sps. or Spurreys, Spergularia sps or Sea-spurreys.
- SUBFAMILY 3 – CARYOPHYLLACEAE (genera 18-24)
Agrostemma githago (Corncockle), Silene spp or Campions, Saponaria officinalis or Soapwort – Archaeophyte, Petrorhagia spp. & Dianthus spp. both are known as Pinks.
89 AMARANTHACEAE – Goosefoot family
Chenopodium spp. or Goosefoots, Atriplex spp or Oraches, Beta vulgaris ssp maritima or Sea Beet, Sarcocornia perennis or Perennial Glasswort, Salicornia spp or Glassworts, Suaeda spp. or Sea-blites, Salsola spp. or Saltworts, Amaranthus spp or Pigweeds all intrd-natd,
90 AIZOACEAE – Dewplant family
All genera intrd-natd form S. Africa and growing often particularly well on the Scilly Isles.
93 MONTIACEAE – Blinks family
Montia fontana or Blinks
95 CORNACEAE – Dogwood family
2 native spp: Cornus sanguinea ssp. sanguinea or Dogwood and C. suecica or Dwarf Cornel.
97 BALSAMINACEAE – Balsam family
Impatiens noli-tangere or Touch-me-not Balsam is only native, others intrd-natd.
99 PRIMULACEAE – Primrose family
Primula spp. (Primroses), Hottonia palustris or Water-violet, Lysimachia spp. or the Loosestrifes, Glaux maritima or Sea Milkwort, Anagallis or Pimpernels, Trientalis europaea or Chickweed wintergreen, Centunculus minimus or Chaffweed.
100 DIAPENSIACEAE – Diapensia family
Diapensia lapponica or Diapensia
102 ERICACEAE – Heather family Dock
Arbutus unedo or Strawberry tree, Arctostaphylos or Bearberries, Empetrum nigrum or Crowberry, Phyllodoce caerulea or Blue Heath, Kalmia procumbens or Trailing Azalea, Daboecia cantabrica or St. Dabeoc’s Heath, Calluna vulgaris or Heather, Erica spp, or Heaths, Andromeda polifolia or Bog rosemary, Vaccinium spp. or Billberries, Pyrola or Wintergreens, Orthilia secunda or Serrated Wintergreen, Moneses uniflora or One-flowered Wintergreen, Hypopitys monotropa and ssp. Yellow Bird’s-nest.
104 RUBIACEAE – Bedstraw family
Sherardia arvensis or Field Madder, Asperula cynanchia or Squinancywort, Galium spp or Bedstraws, Cicendia filiformis or Yellow Centaury, Exaculum pusillum or Guernsey Centaury, Centaurium spp. – Centauries, Blackstonia perfoliata or Yellow-wort, Gentianella spp. – Gentians, Gentianopsis ciliata or Fringed Gentian, Gentiana spp. – Gentians.
106 APOCYNACEAE – Periwinkle family
Vinca minor or Lesser Periwinkle is Archaeophyte.
107 BORAGINACEAE – Borage family
Lithospermum spp or Cromwells, Echium or Viper’s buglosses, Pulmonaria or Longworts, Symphytum or Comfreys, Anchusa arvensis or Bugloss – Archaeophyte, Pentaglottis sempervirens or Green Alkanet: intrd-natd., Mertensia maritima or Oysterplant, Myosotis sps. – Forget-me-nots, Cynoglossum or Houndstongue.
108 CONVOLVULACEAE – Bindweed family
Convolvulus arvensis or Field Bindweed, Calystegia or Bindweeds, Cuscuta or Dodders.
109 SOLANACEAE – Nightshade family
Lycium or Teaplants, Atropa belladonna or Deadly Nightshade, Hyoscyamus niger or Henbane, Datura stramonium or Thorn Apple, Solanum or Nightshades.
110 OLEACEAE – Ash family
Fraxinus excelsior or Ash, Ligustrum vulgare or Wild Privet.
113 VERONICACEAE – Speedwell family
Digitalis purpurea or Fogglove, Veronica spp. or Speedwells (a large genus and has 10 sub-genera), Sibthorpia europaea or Cornish Moneywort, Chaenorhinum minus or Small Toadflax – Archaeophyte, Misopates orontium or Weasel’s-snout, Cymbalaria muralis or Ivy-leaved Toadflax – Intrd-Natd, Kickxia or Fluellens- both species are Archaeophytes, Linaria or Toadflaxes.
114 PLANTAGINACEAE – Plantain family
Plantago spp. – Plantains, Litorella uniflora or Shoreweed.
115 HIPPURIDACEAE – Marestail family
Hippuris vulgaris or Marestail
116 CALLITRICHACEAE – Water starwort family
Callitriche spp. – Water starworts
117 SCROPHULARIACEAE – Figwort family
Verbascum spp. or Mulleins, Scrophularia spp. – Figworts, Limosella spp. or Mudworts, Buddleia davidii or Butterfly bush – Intrd-Natd.
118 LAMIACEAE – Dead-nettle family
Stachys sps. or Woundworts, Betonica officinalis or Betony, Ballota nigra or Black Horehound – Archaeophyte, Leonorus cardiac or Motherwort – Intrd-Natd., Lamiastrum galeobdolon and ssp. or Yellow Archangel, Lamium spp. or Dead-nettles, Galeopsis spp. native and Archaeophyte – Hemp-nettles, Melittis melissophylum or Bastard Balm, Marrubium vulgare or White Horehound, Scutellaria spp. or Skullcaps, Teucrium spp. or Germanders, Ajuga spp. or Bugles, Nepeta cataria or Cat-mint – Archaeophyte, Glechoma hederacea or Ground-ivy, Prunella spp. or Selfheals, Clinopodium spp. or Calamints, Origanum vulgare or Wild Marjoram, Thymus spp. or Thymes, Lycopus europaeus or Gypsywort, Mentha spp. or Mints, Salvia spp. or Claries.
121 ORABANCHACEAE – Broomrape family
Melampyrum sps. or Cow-wheats, Euphrasia sps. or Eyebrights, Odontitis spp. or Bartsias, Bartsia alpina or Alpine Bartsia, Parentucellia viscosa or Yellow Bartsia, Rhinanthus spp. or Yellow-rattles, Pedicularis spp. or Louseworts, Lathraea spp. or Toothworts, Orobanche spp or Broomrapes.
122 LENTIBULARIACEAE – Bladderwort family
Pinguicula spp. or Butterworts, Utricularia spp. or Bladderworts
123 ACANTHACEAE – ‘Bear’s breeches’ family
Acanthus spp or Bear’s breeches
123 A. BIGNONIACEAE – Indian Bean family
Eccremocarpus scaber or Chilean Gloryflower, Catalpa bignoides or Indian bean tree.
124 VERBENACEAE – Vervain family
Verbena officinalis or Vervain
125 AQUIFOLIACEAE – Holly family
Ilex aquifolium or Holly
126 CAMPANULACEAE – Bellflower family
Campanula spp. or Bellflowers, Legousia or Venus’s-looking-glasses, Wahlenbergia or Ivy-leaved Bellflower, Phyteuma or Rampions, Jasione montana or Sheep’s-bit, Lobelia spp. or Lobelias.
127 MENYANTHACEAE – Bogbean family
Menyanthes trifoliata or Bogbean, Nymphoides peltata or Fringed Water-lily.
128 ASTERACEAE – Daisy family
- SUBFAMILY 1 – CARDUOIDEAE
TRIBE 1 – CYNAREAE (Cardueae, Echinopeae, Carlineae (genera 1 – 13)
Echinops or Globe-thistles, Carlina vulgaris or Carline Thistle, Arctium spp. or Burdocks, Cirsium sps. or Thistles, Onopordum acathium or Cotton thistle, Cynara or Globe Artichoke, Silybum marianum or Milk Thistle, Serratula tinctoria or Saw-wort, Centaurea sps. or Knapweeds, Carthamus or Safflowers.
- SUBFAMILY 2 – CICHORIOIDEAE
TRIBE 2 – CICHORIEAE (tribes 2-3; genera 14-38)
Scolymus or Golden Thistle, Cichorium intybus or Chicory, Catananche caerulea or Blue Cupidone, Arnoseris minima or Lamb’s Succory, Lapsana communis or Nipplewort, Hypochaeris spp. or Catsear, Schorzoneroides autumnalis or Autumn Hawkbit, Leontodon spp or Hawkbits, Picris hieracioides or Hawkweed Oxtongue, Helminthotheca echioides or Bristly Oxtongue, Scorzonera humilis or Viper’s grass, Tragopogon pratensis or Goatsbeard, Sonchus spp. or Sowthistles, Lactuca spp. or Lettuces, Cicerbita alpina or Alpine Blue-sowthistle, Mycelis muralis or Wall Lettuce, Taraxacum or Dandelions: “A very critical genus in which apomixes is the rule, 234 microspp. Are currently recognised in BI, of which >40 are probably endemic but 1/2 of the rest native. In this work (Stace p. 712) the microspp. are not treated in full but are aggregated into 9 rather ill-defined sections, determination of which is often not easy even after much experience.” Crepis spp. Or Hawksbeard, Pilosella spp. or Mouse-ear-hawksweed, Hieracium spp. or Hawkweed.
TRIBE 3 – ARCTOTIDEAE (genera 37-38)
- SUBFAMILY 3 – ASTEROIDEAE (tribes 4-16; genera 39-104)
TRIBE 4 – GNAPHALIEAE (genera 39-44)
Filago spp. or Cudweeds, Antennaria dioica or Mountain Everlasting, Gnaphalium spp. or Cudweeds.
TRIBE 5 – INULEAE (genera 45-48)
Inula spp. or Fleabanes, Pulicaria spp. or Fleabanes.
TRIBE 6 – ASTEREAE (genera 49-59)
Solidago vigaurea or Goldenrod, Aster spp. or Michaelmas daisies, Erigeron spp. or Fleabanes, Conyza spp. or Fleabanes, Olearia or Daisy bushes, Baccharis or Tree Groundsel, Bellis perennis or Daisy.
TRIBE 7 ANTHEMIDEAE (genera 60-73)
Tanacetum spp. or Tansies, Artemisia spp. or Mugworts, Achillea spp. or Yarrows, Chamaemelum nobile or Chamomile, Anthemis spp. as well as hybrid crosses of genera Anthemis x Tripleurospermum = x Tripleurothemis, or Chamomiles, Glebionis segetum or Corn Marigold, Leucanthemum vulgare or Oxeye Daisy, Matricaria spp. or Mayweeds, Tripleurospermum spp. or Mayweeds, Cotula spp. or Buttonweeds.
TRIBE 8 – SENECIONEAE (genera 74-84)
Senecio spp. or Ragworts, Tehroseris spp. or Fleaworts, Tussilago farfara or Coltsfoot, Petasites spp. or Butterburs.
TRIBE 9 – CALENDULEAE (genera 85-86)
Calendula spp. or Marigolds
TRIBE 10 – HELIANTHEAE (genera 87-91)
All of the genera seem to be introduced ones often through wool-industry through birdseed, oilseed (e.g. Ambrosia spp. or Ragweeds)or escaped ornamental plant (e.g. Rudbeckia (Coneflower) & Helianthus (Sunflower).
TRIBE 11 – MILLERIEAE (genera 92-94)
Guizotia abyssinica or Niger (bird-seed), Sigesbeckia spp. or St Paul’s-worts, Galinsoga spp. or Gallant-soldiers
TRIBE 12 – COREOPSIDEAE (genera 95-98)
Bidens spp. (Bur-marigolds), Coreopsis spp., Cosmos bipinnatus, Dahlia. The last 3 genera are well known ornamental garden plants.
TRIBE 13 – TAGETEAE (genus 99) Tagetes spp. (Marigolds) – ornamental
TRIBE 14 – BAHIEAE (genus 100) Schikuhria pinnata. (Dwarf Marigold) wool alien from Americas
TRIBE 15 – HELENIEAE (genera 101-102) Gaillardia x grandiflora, Helenium autumnale Both well known ornamental plants.
TRIBE 16 – EUPATORIEAE (genera 103-104)
Eupatorium cannabinum (Hemp agrimony) and Ageratum houstonianum (Flossflower) an ornamental annual plant.
129 ESCALLONIACEAE – Escallonia family (ornamental shrubs)
130 ADOXACEAE – Moschatel family
Adoxa moschatellina (Moschatel)
131 CAPRIFOLIACEAE – Honeysuckle family
Sambucus nigra or Elder and S. ebulus (Dwarf Elder), Viburnum opulus (Guelder-rose) and V. lantana (Wayfaring tree), Symphoricarpus albus (Snowberry), Linnaea borealis (Twinflower), Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle), Weigela florida (Weigelia), Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle).
132 VALERIANACEAE – Valerian family
Valerianella locusta (Common Cornsalad), V. eriocarpa (Hairy-fruited Cornsalad) and various Valerianella spp. (Archaeophytes), Valeriana officinalis (Common Valerian) and V. dioica (Marsh Valerian), Centranthus ruber (Red Valerian) intrd-natd.
133 DIPSACACEAE – Teasel family
Dipsacus fullonum (Wild Teasel), D. sativus (Fuller’s Teasel), D. pilosus (Small Teasel), Cephalaria sp. (Giant Scabious) a garden escape, Knautia arvensis (Field Scabious), Succisa pratensis (Devil’s-bit Scabious), Scabiosa columbaria (Small Scabious).
134 GRISELINIACEAE – Broadleaf family
Griselinia littoralis (New Zealand Broadleaf) is a good seaside hedge in south and west of the country.
135 PITTOSPORACEAE – Pittosporum family again is most common in south and west as ornamental hedge.
136 ARALIACEAE – Ivy family
The only native member is Hedera helix or Common Ivy.
137 HYDROCOTYLACEAE – Pennywort family
Hydrocotyle vulgaris or Marsh Pennywort
138 APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE) – Carrot family
Fully ripe fruit is essential for identification purposes. This is a common and varied plant family in the British Isles. Many of our cultivated vegetables or herbs are in this family and are included below as well as the occasional plants grown in gardens as an ornamental.
- SUBFAMILY 1: SANICULOIDEAE (genera 1-3)
Sanicula europaea (Sanicle), Astrantia spp., Eryngium maritimum (Sea-holly).
- SUBFAMILY 2: APIOIDEAE (genera 4 – 50)
Chaerophyllum temulum (Rough Chervil), Anthriscus spp. (Chervils), Scandix pectin-veneris (Shepherd’s-needle) rare Archaeophyte, Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Smyrnium olusatrum (Alexanders), Bunium bulbocastanum (Great Pignut), Conopodium majus (Pignut), Pimpinella spp. (Burnet-saxifrages), Aegopodium podagraria (Ground-elder) Archaeophyte, Sium latifolium (Greater Water-parsnip), Berula erecta (Lesser Water-parsnip), Crithmum maritimum (Rock Samphire), Seseli libanotis (Moon Carrot), Oenanthe spp. (Water-dropworts), Aethusa cynapium (Fool’s Parsley), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) Archaeophyte, Anethum graveolens (Dill), Silaum silaus (Pepper-saxifrage), Meum athamanticum (Spignel), Physospermum cornubiense (Bladderseed), Conium maculatum (Hemlock) Archaeophyte, Bupleurum spp. (Hare’s-ears), Trinia glauca (Hornewort), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Apium spp. (Marshworts) Apium graveolens (Wild Celery), Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowan), Petroselinum spp. (Parsleys), Ridolfia segetum (False Fennel), Sison amomum (Stone Parsley), Cicuta virosa (Cowbane), Ammi spp. (Bullworts)-grown as an annual cut-flower, Falcaria vulgaris (Longleaf), Carum carvi (Caraway) & C. verticillatum (Whorled Caraway), Selinum carvifolia (Cambridge Milk-parsley), Ligusticum scoticum (Scots Lovage), Angelica sylvestris (Wild Angelica) & A. archangelica (Garden Angelica), Levisticum officinale (Lovage), Ferula communis (giant Fennel), Peucedanum officinale (Hog’s Fennel), Thyselium palustre (Milk-parsley), Imperatoria ostruthium (Masterwort), Pastinaca sativa (Parsnip), Heracleum sphondylium (Hogweed) & H. mantegazzianum (Giant Hogweed), Tordylium maximum (Hartwort), Torilis spp. (Hedge-parsleys), Daucus carota ssp. carota (Wild Carrot) & D. carota ssp. sativus (Carrot).
MONOCOTS OR MONOCOTYLEDONS (families 139-170)
139 ACORACEAE – Sweet flag family
Acorus spp. (Sweet flag).
140 ARACEAE – Lords-and-Ladies family
Arum maculatum or Lords-and-Ladies is the only native representative.
141 LEMNACEAE – Duckweed family
Spirodela polyrhiza (greater Duckweed), Lemna spp. (Duckweeds), Wolffia arrhiza (Rootless Duckweed).
142 TOFIELDIACEAE – Scottish Asphodel family
Toffieldia pusilla (Scottish Asphodel)
143 ALISMATACEAE – Water-plantain family
Sagittaria sagittifolia (Arrowhead), Baldellia ranunculoides (Lesser Water-plantain), Luronium natans (Floating Water-plantain), Alisma spp. (Water-plantains), Damasonium alisma (Starfruit).
144 BUTOMACEAE – Flowering rush family
Butomus umbellatus (Flowering rush)
145 HYDROCHARITACEAE – Frogbit family
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (Frogbit), Stratiotes aloides (Water-soldier), Elodea spp. (Waterweeds), Hydrilla verticillata (Esthwaite Waterweed), Lagarosiphon major (Curly Waterweed), Vallisneria spiralis (Tapegrass), Najas spp. (Naiads)
146 SCHEUCHZERIACEAE – Rannoch-rush family
Scheuchzeria palustris (Rannoch-rush)
147 APONOGETONACEAE – Cape-pondweed family
Aponogeton distachyos (Cape-pondweed)
148 JUNCAGINACEAE – Arrowgrass family
Triglochin spp. (Arrowgrasses)
149 ZOSTERACEAE – Eelgrass family
Zostera spp. (Eelgrasses)
150 POTAMOGETONACEAE – Pondweed family
Potamogeton spp (Pondweeds with 27 species and 28 hybrids), Groenlandia densa (Opposite-leaved Pondweed), Zannichellia palustris (Horned Pondweed)
151 RUPPIACEAE – Tasselweed family
Ruppia spp. (Tasselweeds)
152 NARTHECIACEAE – Bog Asphodel family
Narthecium ossifragum (Bog Asphodel)
153 DIOSCOREACEAE – Black Bryony family
Tamus communis (Black Bryony)
154 MELANTHIACEAE – Herb-Paris family
Paris quadrifolia (Herb-Paris)
155 ALSTROEMERIACEAE – Peruvian Lily family
Alstroemeria aurea is grown as an ornamental garden plant as well as a cut flower
156 COLCHIACEAE – Meadow Saffron family
Colchicum autumnale (Meadow Saffron)
157 LILIACEAE – Lily family
Gagea spp. (Yellow Star-of-Bethlehem), Erythronium dens-canis (Dog’s-tooth-violet) Intrd-natd., Tulipa, Fritillaria meleagris (Fritillary) doubtfully native, Lilium Intrd-natd.
158 ORCHIDACEAE – Orchid family
“Many of the spp. are prone to produce plants with unusual labellum-shapes or flower-colours (e.g. albinos, chlorophyll-less), but these usually occur in populations of normal plants. The distinctive flowers could be confused only by the very inexperienced with a few petaloid monocotyledons or dicotyledons (e.g. Impatiens, Orobanche, Pinguicula): the inferior ovary and 1(-2) stamens on a column will dispel the confusion.
Hybrids occur frequently within the tribe Orchidaceae, especially within Dactylorhiza, and should be looked for whenever >2 spp. of the tribe occur close together. Hybrids between 2 spp. with the same chromosome number are not always completely sterile. 8 intergeneric hybrid combinations also occur, 6 of them between genera 12-16. Other intergeneric hybrid combinations have also been recorded from BI, several of them (e.g. Planthera x Coeloglossum, Planthera x Dactylorhiza) known from the Continent, but are of uncertain or erroneous identity.” (St. 858-859)
The family is split into 6 tribes and 22 genera
TRIBE 1 – CYPRIPEDIEAE (genus 1)
Cyprepedium calceoles (Lady’s slipper) a now very rare native on north-facing grassy slope on limestone in MW Yorks (St. 860)
TRIBE 2 – NEOTTIEAE (genus 2 – 4)
Cephalanthera spp. (Helleborines), Epipactis spp. (Helleborines) and Neottia spp. (Twayblades)
TRIBE 3 – GASTRODIEAE (genus 5)
Epipogium aphyllum (Ghost Orchid)
TRIBE 4 – MALAXIDEAE (genus 6 – 7)
Liparis loeselii (Fen Orchid) and Hammarbya paludosa (Bog Orchid)
TRIBE 5 – CALYPSOEAE (genus 8)
Corallorhiza trifida (Coralroot Orchid)
TRIBE 6 – CRANICHIDEAE (genera 9 – 10)
Spiranthes spp. (Lady’s tresses) and Goodyera repens (Creeping Lady’s tresses)
TRIBE 7 – ORCHIDACEAE (genera 11 – 22)
Herminium monorchis (Musk Orchid), Platanthera spp. (Butterfly orchids), Pseudoorchis albida (Small white Orchid), Gymnadenia spp. (Fragrant Orchids), Coeloglossum viride (Frog Orchid), Dactylorhiza spp. (Marsh Orchids), Orchis spp. (Orchids), Neotinea spp. (Dense flowered Orchids), Anacamptis spp. (Pyramidal Orchids), Himantoglossum hircinum (Lizard Orchid), Serapias parviflora (Lesser Tongue-orchid), Ophyrus spp. (Bee Orchids).
159 IRIDACEAE – Iris family
Aristea ecklonii (Blue Corn lily) Intrd-natd. On Tresco (Scilly Isls.), Libertia spp. (Chilean irises), Sisyrinchium spp. (Blue-eyed grass) all intrd.-natd., Hermodactylus tuberosus (Snake’s-head Iris) intrd.-natd., Iris spp. (Irises), Watsonia borbonica ( Bugle-lily) Intrd-natd. On Tresco (Scilly Isls.), Romulea columnae (Sand Crocus), Crocus spp.(Crocuses) all Intrd-natd., Gladiolus illyricus (Wild Gladiolus), Ixia spp. (Corn-lilies) Intrd.-natd., Sparaxis grandiflora (Plain Harlequinflower), Hesperantha coccinea (Kaffir Lily), Freesia x hybrid (Freesia), Crocosmia spp. (Montbretias) and Chasmanthe bicolour (Chasmanthe) all last genera intrd.-natd.
160 XANTHORRHOEACEAE – Asphodel family
The 5 genera are all individually distinctive and only one genus true native (Simethis)
Asphodelus albus (White Asphodel), Simethis mattiazzii (Kerry Lily), Hemerocallis spp. (Day lilies), Kniphofia spp. (Red hot pokers), Phormium spp. (New Zealand Flaxes)
161 AMARYLLIDACEAE – Daffodil family
Allium spp. (Onions) many intrd-natd but also several native species, Nectaroscordum siculum (Honey Garlic), Nothoscordum borbonicum (Honeybells), Agapanthus praecox (African Lily), Triteleia laxa (Triplet Lily), Tristagma uniflorum (Spring Starflower), Amaryllis belladonna (Jersey Lily), Crinum x powellii (Powell’s Cape lily), Sternbergia lutea (Winter Daffodil), Leucojum spp. (Snowflakes), Galanthus spp. (Snowdrops), Narcissus spp. (Daffodills) only N. pseudonarcissus is true native, Pancratium maritimum (Sea Daffodil) not sure if native. Most genera above are intrd.-natd. as ornamental garden plants.
162 ASPARAGACEAE – Asparagus family
Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-valley), Polygonatum spp. (Solomon’s seal), Maianthemum bifolium ( May Lily), Reineckea carnea (Reineckea) Intrd.-natd., Ornithogalum spp. (Star-of-Bethlehem) most are intrd.-natd., Scilla spp. (Squill), most are intrd-natd except for S. verna (Spring Squill) and S. autumnalis (Autumn Squill), Hyacinthoides non-scripta (Bluebell), Hyacinthus orientalis (Hyacinth), Muscari neglectum (Grape-hyacinth) other spp are intrd.- natd., Asparagus prostrates is only true Wild Asparagus, Ruscus aculeatus (Butcher’s broom), Yucca gloiosa (Spanish dagger), Cordyline australis (Cabbage palm), Agave americana (Centuryplant).
162A ARECACEAE – Palm family
Phoenix dactylifera (Date Palm) with pinnate leaved and Trachycarpus fortunei (palmate-leaved) are 2 ornamental palms mostly seen in BI.
163 COMMELINACEAE – Spiderwort family
Pontederia cordata (Pickerelweed) Intrd-natd.
165 TYPHACEAE – Bulrush family
Sparganium spp. (Bur reeds), Typha spp. (Bulrushes)
166 BROMELIACEAE – Rhodostachys family
Fascicularia bicolor (Rhodostachys) and Ochagavia carnea (Tresco Rhodostachys both originating from Chile.
167 ERIOCAULACEAE – Pipewort family
Eriocaulon aquaticum (Pipewort)
168 JUNCACEAE – Rush family
- Juncus (Rushes) split into 9 sections:
Section 1 – GRAMINIFOLII
Juncus planifolius (Broad-leaved Rush) Intrd-natd.
Section 2 – CAESPITOSI
Juncus capitatus (Dwarf rush)
Section 3 – OZOPHYLLUM (spp. 3-8)
Section 4 – STYGIOPSIS (spp. 9-11)
Section 5 – JUNCUS (spp. 12-13)
Section 6 – STEIROCHLOA (spp. 14 – 20)
Section 7 – TENAGEIA (spp. 21 – 23)
Section 8 – FORSKALINA ( sp. 24)
Section 9 – JUNCOTYPUS (spp. 25 – 30)
- Luzula (Wood-rushes) 9 mostly native species.
169 CYPERACEAE – Sedge family
Eriophorum spp. (Cottongrasses), Trichophorum spp. (Deergrasses), Bolboschoenus maritimus (Sea Club-rush), Scirpus sylvaticus (Wood Club-rush), Schoenoplectus spp. (Club-rush), Eleocharis spp. (Spike-rush), Scirpoides holoschoenus (Round headed Club-rush), Isolepis spp. (Club-rush), Eleogiton fluitans (Floating Club-rush), Cyperus spp. (Galingales), Blysmus spp. (Flat sedge), Schoenus spp. (Bog rush), Cladium mariscus (Great Fen sedge), Rhynchospora spp. (Beak sedge), Kobresia simpliciuscula (False sedge), Carex spp.
Subgenus 1 – VIGNEA (spp. 1-22)
Subgenus 2 – CAREX (spp. 23-74)
Subgenus 3 – PSYLLOPHORA (spp. 75-78)
170 POACEAE – Grass family
- SUBFAMILY 1 – BAMBUSOIDEAE
TRIBE 1 – BAMBUSEAE
TRIBE 2 – ORYZEAE
Leersia oryzoides or Cut-grass
TRIBE 3 – EHRHARTEAE
- SUBFAMILY 2 – POOIDEAE
TRIBE 4 – NARDEAE
Nardus stricta or Mat-grass
TRIBE 5 – STIPEAE
Milium effusum or Wood Millet and Millium vernal or Early Millet.
TRIBE 6 – POEAE
Schedonorus or Fescues, Schedonorus x Lolium = x Schedolium, Lolium or Ryegrass, Lolium x Festuca = x Festulolium, Festuca spp or Fescues, Festuca x Vulpia = Festulpia, Vulpia or Fescues, Cynosurus cristatus or Crested Dog’s-tail, Pucinella spp or Saltmarsh grasses, Briza or Quaking grasses, Poa or Meadowgrasses (13 native species), Dactylis glomerata or Cock’s foot, Catabrosa aquatic or Worl-grass, Catapodium spp. Fern-grasses, Sesleria caerulea or Blue Moor-grass, Parapholis spp. or Hard-grasses, Hainardia cylindrica or One-glumed Hard-grass, Avenula spp. or Oat-grasses, Arrhenatherum elatius or False Oat-grass, Avena spp. or Oats, Trisetum spp. or Yellow Oat-grass, Koeleria spp. or Hair grasses, Deschampsia spp. or Hair grasses, Holcus spp or Soft grasses, Corynephorus canescens or Grey Hair grass, Aira spp. or Hair grass, Hierochloe odorata or Holy grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum or Sweet Vernal grass, Phalaris arundinacea or Reed Canary grass, Agrostis spp. or Bents, Calamagrostis spp. or Small-reed, Ammophila arenaria or Marram, Gastridium ventricosum or Nit-grass, Mibora minima or Early Sand-grass, Polypogon monspeliensis or Annual Beard-grass, Alopecurus spp. or Foxtails, Phleum spp or Cat’s-tails.
TRIBE 7 – MELICEAE
Glyceria spp. or Sweet-grasses, Melica spp. or Melicks.
TRIBE 8 – BROMEAE
Bromus spp. or Bromes, Anisantha spp. or Barren Bromes, Bromopsis spp. or Hairy Bromes, Ceratochloa spp. or American Bromes.
TRIBE 9 – BRACHYPODIEAE
Brachypodium spp. or False Bromes.
TRIBE 10 – TRITICEAE
Elymus caninus or Bearded Couch, Elytrigia spp. or Couches, Leymus arenarius or Lyme-grass, Hordelymus europaeus, Hordeum spp. or Barleys, Secale cereal or Rye, Triticum or Wheats.
- SUBFAMILY 3 – ARUNDINOIDEAE
TRIBE 11 – DANTHONIEAE
Danthonia decumbens or Heath-grass, Cortaderia spp. or (Ornamental) Pampas Grass.
TRIBE 12 – ARUNDINEAE
Molinia caerulea or Purple Moor-grass, Phragmites australis or Common Reed
- SUBFAMILY 4 – CHLORIDOIDEAE
TRIBE 13 – ERAGROSTIDEAE (all non-native)
Leptochloa spp. or Beetle-grasses, Eragrostis spp. or Love-grasses, Eleusine spp, or Yard-grasses, Dactyloctenium radulans or Button-grass, Sporobolus spp. or Dropseeds.
TRIBE 14 – CYNODONTEAE
Chloris spp. or Rhodes-grasses, Cynodon spp. or Bermuda-grasses, Spartina spp. or Cord-grasses, Tragus spp. or Bur-grasses.
- SUBFAMILY 5 – PANICOIDEAE
TRIBE 15 – PANICEAE (all non-native)
Panicum spp. or Millets, Echinochloa spp or Cockspurs, Brachiaria spp. or Signal-grasses, Urochloa panicoides or Sharp-flowered Signal-grass, Eriochloa pseudoacrotricha or Perennial Cup-grass, Paspalum distichum or Finger-grasses, Setaria spp. or Bristle-grasses, Digitaria spp. or Finger-grasses, Cenchrus echinatus or Sandbur.
TRIBE 16 – ANDROPOGONEAE (all non-native)
Sorghum spp. or Millets, Miscanthus spp. (Ornamental) Silver-grasses, Zea mays or Maize.