Foraging has been done for centuries but is hopefully getting a bit of a revival!
People like to have a connection with nature again, especially with their daily exercise in lockdown situation and what a better way to do this then to go out there and forage!
So today I would like to introduce you to a document received from fellow botanist Mike Poulton, who used to do training sessions on foraging for wild plants. It is a good, quick reference to the more useful wild plants for food!
The edible parts of the native plants are listed with their common names and categorized in 5 sections: leaves and shoots (1), herbs (2), edible flowers (3), fruits and seeds (4) and roots (5).
However for the novice:
In many cases the plant needs to be really known before you harvest and eat it. It is easiest to identify when it flowers, which is often too late to harvest the leaves.. Start in that case with the really obvious ones and remember where the plant is after you’ve seen it flowering for harvesting in spring the following year!
A good flora to identify the plants below will be necessary such as the Wild Flower Key by F. Rose although ‘The Vegetative Key to the British Flora by J. Poland & E. Clement is more useful for the edible leaves below.
Wikipedia and other links on the common plant names are also for quick reference and pictures with descriptions. All plants are found in the British Isles as well as in many other temperate climates.
A most inspiring blog on edible weeds by my friend Robin Harford can be found here
1) LEAVES AND SHOOTS: These are mostly at their best when young and tender, which is late winter, early spring and at least before the plant shoots up to flower!
Goosegrass /cleavers – young shoots in spring (before they go too sticky)– boil like spinach
Dandelion – leaves used in salads – use young leaves, trim off stalk and wash roughly chop add olive oil, garlic and lemon juice
See in my post here on dandelion.
Nipplewort – leaves like dandelion
Cat’s-ear – leaves like dandelion
Yarrow – leaves as above but in small quantity as it is cool and bitter
Fat-hen – delicious when young and succulent, treat like spinach.
Ground-elder – treat like spinach (tangy flavour)
Comfrey – treat like spinach – older leaves have more flavour than young leaves.
Redshank – as above, treat like spinach.
Common Sorrel – cook like spinach – taste of rhubarb – sorrel soup
Chickweed – one of the most deliciously tender wild vegetables – strip bunches with the stems, wash and put into saucepan without water – add butter, seasoning and chopped spring onion. Simmer gently for approximately 10 minutes stirring all the time – add dash of lemon juice or a sprinkling of grated nutmeg.
Shepherd’s-purse – as chickweed but not as good
Bladder campion – as above
Hogweed – as above – young shoots
Hop – as above
Yellow Archangel – as above and see my block-post below (as it is in the Deadnettle family)
Common Mallow – soup – chose young leaves and wash well
Stinging Nettle – collect young leaves before June – boil gently, drain, add butter and seasoning. Fluffy in texture – insipid to taste. Best used to make into soup
Alexanders – stems near base where blanched by surrounding vegetation – 6” of pinkish stem discarding greenish bits. Smell disappears on cooking – boiling water for 10 minutes – eat like asparagus with melted butter – wonderfully delicate texture and pleasant aromatic taste
Burdock – young leaf stems in May – cut into 2” lengths – strip off hard outer peel leaving moist core about the thickness of a pipe cleaner – chopped and used raw in salads, boiled and served with butter like asparagus or added to meat soups – crisp, nutty flavour with hint of fennel and of the skin of cucumber.
2) HERBS: Many herbs below are not that easily found, identified and often need a certain habitat. Make sure you got the right plant especially the ones in the Umbel family!
Meadowsweet – leaves used for flavouring – smell of new mown hay – dried leaves used to be used for giving aromatic bouquet to port, claret and mead (hence the name)
Cow Parsley – young leaves as soon as identifiable (beware hemlock and fool’s-parsley) – very versatile makes a lively addition to salads – good flavouring for herb omelettes. Goes well with jacket potatoes
Fennel – all parts edible – thinner stalks, leaf sprays and seeds most useful – cut early in summer and hang to dry. Smells stronger as it dries – gather seeds in October
Angelica – cut thickest stems and leaves together – chopped leaves good with stewed fruit
Water Mint – leaves various uses as for other mints
Marjoram or Oregano– pleasantly pungent additions to salads, stews and casseroles
Woodruff – odourless but smell of new mown hay on drying (coumarin) – used in beds – readily transfers to liquids – ideal to add to summer wine cups – add a sprig to pure apple juice for a week
Sweet Cicely – feathery leaves ideal for flavouring stewed fruit – pleasantly aniseed flavour
Ground-ivy – makes herbal tea
More about the Ground-ivy as well as other members of the Lamiaceae family can be found here.
Lady’s Bedstraw – anti-coagulant – used in bedding for its pleasant hay-like smell
Tansy – off-putting smell and can be (dangerous) stomach irritant – served with fried eggs and used to flavour puddings – used as a vermifuge
Wormwood – bitter oil extracted from flower heads is key ingredient for absinthe – potent alcoholic drink in excess damaging to heart – contains an anthelmintic (worm dispeller) – hallucinogen if taken in overdose. All Artemisia contain small quantities of this substance
Also see my post about ‘more members of the Asteraceae.‘
Ramsons – strong garlic smell but much of this pungency disappears on cooking – gives mild garlic flavour to a dish
3) FLOWERS: These are often much easier to identify correctly.
Lime Tea – lay flowers (young flowers and buds only!) on tray in well ventilated room – ready after 2-3 weeks
Broom – pickled or added to salads
See also my post on the Pea family.
Hawthorn – makes fine liqueur
Hop – look for recipes in books
Heather – dried flower heads make a good tea
Elderflowers – eat straight from the tree – cool and frothy like ice-cream soda – collect with 2” of stem attached – never wash – pickled or added to salads – makes best sparkling wine next to champagne
Sweet Violet – fragrance and decorative quality in cooking
Hardhead or Knapweed – flowers in salads
4) FRUITS AND SEEDS: These are often easier to identify in the field although do still take care not to misidentify as some fruits will be poisenous!
Goosegrass /cleavers – seeds ground and used like coffee
Blackberry, Raspberry, Blackthorn, Cherry Plum, Wild Cherry, Hawthorn (jelly), Rowan (jelly), Crab Apple, Gooseberry, Redcurrant, Bilberry, Elder (various uses), Oregon-grape – eaten raw or made into jelly, Medlar, Snowberry ??, Guelder-rose – you may get sick if eaten raw but is edible if cooked!
Dandelion – roots dried and ground to make coffee substitute- almost indistinguishable from real coffee but without the caffeine